Biodiversity hotspots in the world cover the field of biodiversity. This type of area has significant levels of biodiversity that are endangered by human habitation. The world has a treasure trove of exceptional biological resources, ranging from high mountain peaks to the depths of the deep ocean, as well as from tropical to Polar Regions. This has led to the identification of specific areas with concerns of unequal species distribution as well as loss of high biodiversity. So let's gather some more information about What Is a Biodiversity Hotspot.
Biodiversity hotspots host their diverse ecosystems at only 2.4% of the Earth's surface. The original 25 hotspots cover 11.8% of the world's surface area. Current hotspots cover more than 15.7% of the land surface area but have lost about 85% of the insect habitat. About 60% of the world's mammals support plants, birds, reptiles and amphibians, and some of these hotspots support 15,000 endemic plant species and some have lost 95% of their natural habitat.
Plants and animals have the richest and most endangered reserves of life in the world. Many hotspot regions are known as some of the most important ecosystems in the world that are home to a number of endemic species that also provide critical ecosystem services for the benefit of humans. At present about 2.08 billion people live in hotspot regions and depend on these forest areas for their survival.
Conservation Of Biodiversity
The conservation of biodiversity in the world is Protection, upliftment, conservation of biodiversity and scientific management and due to which it can be maintained at its threshold level and sustainable benefits to the present and future generation. Many international organizations are working in many ways to protect these types of hotspots.
The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund is a global program that provides financial and technical assistance to non-governmental organizations and has biodiversity hotspots, partnerships, wildlife areas of high-biodiversity and vital importance to protect the world's richest regions of flora and fauna. .
Many organizations have been selected for the endemism, richness, taxonomic uniqueness, unusual ecological phenomenon and global rarity of the species included in the hospice. At least one Global 200 Ecoregion is found in all biodiversity hotspots.
Types of Biodiversity
1. Species Biodiversity
Species Biodiversity The diversity of species in the world is found in a particular area and it refers to the diversity of different species. Such hospice species have the most basic level of biodiversity. Species Biodiversity includes all species from plants to various microorganisms. Species Biodiversity No two individuals of the same species are exactly alike.
2. Genetic Biodiversity
Organisms included in Genetic Biodiversity refer to the diversity of its genetic resources. Each of the specific species of genetic biodiversity differs from each other in their genetic makeup because each human looks at each other. In the same way different varieties of maize, rice, wheat, barley, etc. are to be seen in the same species.
3. Ecological Diversity
Life on earth is a collection of living and non-living things and their interactions with each other. This type of biodiversity refers to the differences in animal species living with plant and animal species and connected by food chains and foodstuffs. One area of ecological diversity is the diversity seen between different ecosystems. Ecological diversity is found in a variety of ecosystems such as mangroves, deserts, rainforests, etc.
Biodiversity Hotspots in World
These types of hotspots are defined as regions of the world where extraordinary concentrations of endemic species are undergoing extraordinary habitat loss. Criteria for qualifying of this hotspot and name of hotspot regions of the world which are very useful for competitive exams like SSC, UPSC-Prelims, State Services, and NDA.
1. South America
- Tropical Andes
- Chilean winter rainfall (Valdivian) Forests
- Brazil's Cerrado
- Atlantic forest
2. Asia and Australia
- Polynesia and Micronesian Islands Complex including Hawaii
- Wallace (Eastern Indonesia)
- Philippine biodiversity hotspot
- New Caledonia
- Japan biodiversity hotspot
- Himalayan hotspot
- South-Western Australia
- The Western Ghats of India and Islands of Sri Lanka
- Western Sunda: Indonesia, Malas and Brunei
- New Zealand biodiversity hotspot
- Mountains of South-West China
- The Eastern Himalayas
3. Europe and Central Asia
- The Mediterranean basin and Eastern Coastal region
- Caucasus region
- Mountains of Central Asia
- Iran-Anatolia region
- South Africa's Cape floristic hotspot
- Succulent Karou
- Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands
- The Guinean forests of Western Africa
- Coastal forests of Eastern Africa
- East Malanesian islands
- Maputoland, Podoland, Albany hotspot
- Horn of Africa
- Eastern Afro-Montane
5. North and Central America
- Modrean pine-oak woodlands of the Mexico and USA border
- California Floristic Province
- The Mesoamerican forests
- Caribbean islands hotspot
Biodiversity Hotspots in India
This type of country is very famous for its rich flora and fauna. There are more than 200 species of birds, more than 500 species of mammals and 30,000 different species in this country. India has 101 national parks, 333 wildlife sanctuaries and 35 zoological gardens. The Zoological Survey of India, headquartered in Kolkata, India, is responsible for surveying the fauna of India.
The main reasons for the rich diversity in the biodiversity hotspots of India are the right climatic conditions, fertile soil, rainfall, adequate temperature and which allows the growth of different plants. The hospice areas of India are covered with sub-tropical forests, tropical, dense savannah meadows. The forests of this country range from tropical rainforests including the Andaman, Western Ghats and North-East India to the coniferous forests of the Himalayas.
- The Indo-Burma region
- The Western Ghats
- The Sundaland
Loss of Biodiversity
Loss of Biodiversity is also known as the reduction of biodiversity within a species, the ecosystem and a given geographical area or the whole earth. Biodiversity loss caused by the diversity of human life can lead to a breakdown in the functioning of the ecosystem where it has declined.
1. Natural Biodiversity Loss
Biodiversity is increased as the field progresses and decreases with the natural cycle. Loss of biodiversity leads to an increase or decrease in biodiversity as the seasons change and the population of many species increases. And climate change as other insects die and migrating animals go. In addition to the indigenous population and the seasonal rise and fall of plants that serve as food for other forms of life.
This type of damage is usually associated with more permanent ecological changes in landscapes, ecosystems and the global biosphere. Natural environmental disturbances, such as wildfires, floods and volcanic eruptions, drastically alter ecosystems by transforming entire biological communities.
2. Human-Driven Biodiversity Loss
The loss of biodiversity due to human disturbances is called - Human-Driven Biodiversity Loss. This type is more intense and lasts longer due to loss of biodiversity. Due to human beings, their crops and their food animals take up a growing share of the earth's land area.
Loss of biodiversity has led to a 77% reduction in the number of vertebrates worldwide due to this massive conversion of goats, cattle, sheep and other livestock and forests, wetlands, grasslands and other terrestrial ecosystems. The 2019 report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Diversity and Ecosystem Services in the World noted that about 10 million species of plants and animals are becoming extinct by humans.
Importance of Biodiversity
The vast range of life of all species, through the changing Biodiversity of the world, faces a crisis of historic historical proportions. Increasing urbanization, development, pollution, disease is all destructive to the tree of life. We all know that with the mass extinction of dinosaurs, the species is becoming extinct at the fastest rate today.
To prevent loss of biodiversity, people should keep it where biodiversity resides. Biodiversity hotspots include areas that are severely threatened by the loss of habitat of other species and other human activities due to the increasing habitat of people. Presently the regions are conservation species and can have a huge impact in protecting our global biodiversity.
Threats to Biodiversity
The world's hotspots of biodiversity are facing serious threats from a number of anthropological activities such as forest fires, deforestation, climate change and hunting. In recent times a large number of natural resources have been destroyed due to exploitation, forests, agricultural expansion, roads, railways, demo construction and habitat for a growing human population.
Loss of vast forest areas results in loss of habitat in the world, changes in the natural landscape and extreme fragments of wildlife habitats and a rapid decline in the number of endemic species settling in the hotspot area. Some invasive species of flowers and fauna have lost their native species due to human activities in various habitats and which have caused damage to our ecosystem. Anthropology puts tremendous pressure on biodiversity and ecosystems due to the effects of urban tourism, climate change and other recreational activities.