Ancient Thebes Egypt History

Today we are going to talk about Thebes Egypt. This place is known as Waset by the ancient Egyptians. Thebes was an ancient Egyptian city located 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt on the banks of the Nile. The ruins of Thebes are located in the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. This city was the fourth largest city in the Nome of Upper Egypt. And the city of Thebes was the longtime capital of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom eras. So let us gather a little more information about Thebes.

With very valuable mineral resources and trade routes, Thebes was close to the city of Nubia and the Eastern Desert. This place was the center of a cult and the most revered city during many periods in the history of ancient Egypt. The temples of Karnak and Luxor stand in the center of this city. On the west side of Thebes can be found the necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and recreational complexes.


The city of Thebes was built to honor the living, the dead and the divine. This place was the city of Amun and its devotees placed it among the ancient gods and goddesses. This city was inhabited about 3200 BC. Conquered Thebes is in 663 BC with the help of Ashur and Ishtar. They took care of the silver, gold, precious stones, all the treasures of the palace, rich cloth, precious linen, great horses, men and women in this city.

The city of Thebes never regained its former political significance. But this place remained an important religious center. The Assyrians established Psamtik I on Thebes. In 525 BC the Persian Cambyses II invaded Thebes and Egypt and became the pharaoh, subjugating the site to the larger Achaemenid Empire.

Demographics and Geography

Historian Ian Morris estimates that by 1500 BC, this city would have become the largest city in the world with a population of about 75,000, and its location dates back to about 900 BC. The population of Thebes was about 30,000 during 1800 BC, when Thebes was the largest city in Egypt. According to George Modelski, there were about 40,000 inhabitants in this place in 2000 BC.

The city of Thebes was built on the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley, which is a large tributary of the Nile. Naturally Thebes was laid parallel to the contemporary river on the north-south-west axis. The city covers an area of ​​93 km2, including parts of the Theban Hills to the west, on the sacred 420-meter Al-Qurn. To the east of Thebes lies the mountainous desert whose valleys flow into the valley.

Things to Do

The city of Thebes has been transformed by the present pharaoh Ramesses II. And currently in the city of Thebes are inscribed new temples adorned with very large statues of kings and large obelisks with their names and titles. Less than 50 years after the Religious Revolution of 1352–1336 BC at Thebes, many places of worship and shrines for traditional deities were closed, with only new temples, the Sun-Disc, and the Athenian tourist currently visiting. Moving from the east coast of this city where the sun comes to the west coast where the sun sets the tourist can find a lot of amazing sights.


Archaeological remains of the city of Thebes give a striking testimony to Egyptian culture at its height. The Greek poet Homer extolled and flattered his fortune in this city in the 8th century BC. The city of Thebes in Egypt contains valuables and treasures.

Culture and Cultural Heritage

More than 60 annual festivals were celebrated in the city of Thebes. The main festivals of this place were according to the geographical text of Edfu. These include the beautiful festival of Opet, the Khoiak festival, the Festival of I Shemu, and the Festival of II Shemu. Another popular festival in the city of Thebes was a beautiful Halloween festival in the valley.

The ruins of the ancient city of Thebes were declared a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979. From 25 October 2018 to 27 January 2019, in collaboration with the Louvre and the British Museum, a three-month exhibition on the city and the role of women in the city of Thebes was organized at the Grenoble Museum.

Things to know

Visitors to Thebes should not feel overwhelmed by the location. The conquest of Ramesses II resulted in a large number of foreigners settling in the city and Egypt, but the inhabitants of areas such as Nubia were an active part of the Egyptian economy and society. Many entertaining texts also provide beautiful pictures of the gods of Thebes and which are often associated with their desire to reach a lifetime.

Visitors from abroad to the city of Thebes are more than welcome. However, local visits to Thebes and observance of devotion to the gods remain important during your visit. Policing of the holy sites and necropolis areas of Thebes ensures that graves remain inadvisable.

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