Red Sea

Today we are going to talk about the Red Sea. The Red Sea is known as the northern tropical sea of the Indian Ocean. The Red Sea lies between the continents of Africa and Asia. The Red Sea is connected to the sea by the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden to the south. To the north of this type of sea lie the Gulf of Aqaba, the Sinai Peninsula and the Gulf of Suez. So let's gather a little more information about the Red Sea.

Where Is The Red Sea?

The sea level of this type is about 438,000 km2. The Red Sea is about 2250 km long and 355 km wide at the widest point of the sea. The average depth of the Red Sea is 490 m and the maximum depth of the Red Sea in the central Suakin trough reaches 3,040 m.

This type of sea also has huge shallow shelves. The Red Sea is known for its marine life and corals. The Red Sea is home to more than 1000 indigenous species and 200 species of soft and hard corals. The Red Sea has been designated as the Global 200 Ecoregion. This type of sea is liquid and that makes it a part of the Great Rift Valley.

A total of 6 countries from the continents of Asia and Africa border this type of sea. In addition to these 6 countries, some other regions, including Somalia and This are also known as sea regions because of their proximity to the sea and similar geography with countries bordering the Red Sea.

Exclusive Economic Zones In Red Sea

1. Djibouti : 7,037 Area km²
2. Yemen : 35,861 Area km²
3. Eritrea : 78,383 Area km²
4. Egypt : 91,279 Area km²
5. Sudan : 92,513 Area km²
6. Saudi Arabia : 186,392 Area km²


This type of sea is found between arid lands, deserts and semi-deserts. Reef systems are better developed in the ocean. Due to the depth and efficient water circulation system of the Red Sea, its water is exchanged with the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean through the Gulf of Aden. And such physiological factors reduce the effect of high salinity due to the evaporation of the Red Sea in the north and relatively hot water in the south.

Lack of rainfall and no major source of freshwater in the ocean results in evaporation of as much as 205 cm per year and the ocean has high salinity with minimal diversity. The salinity of the Red Sea water is between 36 ‰ in the southern part and 40 ‰ in the northern part around the Gulf of Suez, on average.

The northern part of this type of ocean is dominated by continuous north-westerly winds at speeds of 7 km / h and 12 km / h. The range of tides in the central Red Sea is almost tedious and the change in its annual water level is more significant. The north and northeast winds prevailing on this sea affect the speed of water in the coastal inlets especially during storms.


This type of ocean climate is influenced by two monsoon seasons called North-East Monsoon and South-West Monsoon. The average surface temperature of the Red Sea during the summer season is about 26 ° C on the north side and about 30 ° C on the south side. Winter temperatures on the Red Sea drop by about 2 C. The Red Sea receives an average of 0.06 mm of annual rainfall, and desert dust storms occasionally blow around the ocean. This type of ocean is one of the warmest oceans in the world due to the high water temperature.


The first known exploration of this type of sea area was carried out by the ancient Egyptians around 2,500 BC and around 1500 BC. In the 6th century BC, Darius of Persia first made the Red Sea an important part of his research project to improve and expand research by finding many dangerous rocks and currents.

This type of sea eventually became a favorite route of the Romans to trade with India. During the middle Ages, people used the Red Sea to trade in spices. The Suez Canal, built on the Red Sea, was officially opened on November 17, 1869. In addition, the Suez Canal currently accounts for about 7% of maritime trade.

Islands In Red Sea

There are more than a thousand volcanic islands in this type of sea. The two largest island groups in the Red Sea are located in the southern part. The Farasan Islands lie to the east of the Red Sea and the Dahlak Archipelago lies to the west of the Sea. Some of the well-known islands in the Red Sea include Tiran Island, located near the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Located in the northern part of this type of sea, Al Wajh Bank is known for its unique biodiversity.


This type of sea forms the critical artery for the world economy. The coral reefs of the sea provide food and support for the livelihoods of 28 million people living along the coast. Fishing alone generates about 23 230 million in annual revenue from the Red Sea. About 12 12 billion comes from tourism on the Red Sea.

This type of sea also serves as a rich source of unique coral reefs, medicine and natural products. Some of the major mineral resources found on the Red Sea include halite, gypsum, dolomite, phosphates and sulfur. Numerous commercial efforts and industrial development have also been undertaken by these coastal countries to explore oil and natural gas reserves.

Marine Life And Protected Areas

The rich ecosystem of this type of sea also supports high biodiversity and has a low proportion of endemic species. This type of sea has an extensive network of shallow shelves, invertebrates hosting at least 200 hard, 1000 species and soft corals and more than 1,200 fish species. It is estimated that about 14.7% of the fish in this ocean are endemic species.

About 175 nudibranchs and 44 shark species are also found in this type of sea. The Fringing Coral Reefs extend for about 2,000 kilometers around the coast of the Red Sea, and most of these rocks are found mainly composed of stony Acropora and porites corals, estimated to be about 5,000-7,000 years old. Red Sea also supports marine habitats on the sea such as mangroves, seagrass beds, salt marshes and salt pans.

Human Settlements Along The Red Sea

This type of sea shares its seawater with countries such as Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan, Eritrea and Djibouti and is home to about 150 million people. The Red Sea coast also includes some of the most populous centers, including Elliott, Jeddah, the port of Sudan, and the fast-growing cities of Massawa, Aqaba, and Al Hodeidah.

Egypt has about 1,500 kilometers of coastline of this type. The beaches of the Red Sea are also famous for recreational activities that attract many tourists to enjoy diving at Daedalus Reef, Ras Mohammed, Elphinstone Reef, St. John's Reef, The Brothers and various places.

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