Today we are going to talk about Livestock carriers. The Livestock Carrier is known as a large ship. Livestock Carrier is used for live export of sheep, cattle and goats. This type of vessel is typically newly built or converted from container vessels. So let's gather a little more information about Livestock carriers.
Many live animals can be transported to various classes of Livestock Carrier as part of the cargo subject to proper regulation. The Livestock Carrier is considered to be the typical method of transport at short sea crossings. And Livestock Carriers usually have fewer animals.
The Livestock Carrier is considered to be a vessel that specializes in the transportation of a large number of live animals with travel requirements and the requirements include food, water, sawdust and medicine. Travel on this type of ship usually lasts from three days to three or four weeks. The Livestock Carrier lasts for several months when the spread of the disease is suspected.
Sizes and Capacities
Let me tell you that the size of Livestock Carrier varies according to the market demand at different times in different parts of the world. The main countries using Livestock carriers and exporting livestock in the late twentieth century were Australia and New Zealand and the main importers of livestock were the Middle East.
Livestock Carrier is a vessel that trades in sizes ranging from 2,000 tons of deadweight to 25,000 DWT. Factors limiting the size of the Livestock Carrier are complex. Many large ships of this type can achieve a large economy in their operations but they need more extensive port facilities to handle the possibility of loading or discharging a large number of livestock.
These types of ships carry more crew members than conventional cargo ships of the same size. The Livestock Carrier is considered an essential part of the experienced Stockman crew. The total number of stockmen required in a Livestock Carrier varies according to the number of animals. And Livestock carriers are based on factors such as the arrangement of livestock pens and the extent of automated systems for feeding and watering establishments.
During the last three decades of the twentieth century there was a progressive trend towards large livestock carriers carrying very large numbers of animals. A significant limit before the last three decades of the twentieth century was the ability to store fresh water on ships. The average size animal needs at least forty liters of water per head per day to maintain the condition in the Livestock Carrier.
The development of water production technology has finally given these types of ships equipment and capacity to produce up to 600 tons of fresh water per day. In addition, sheep and many medium-sized animals need to be fed at least 2% of their body weight per day. These types of ships are required to carry sufficient food for the maximum length of travel and sufficient reserves for emergencies.
Medium-sized vessels with a capacity of approximately 30,000 to 40,000 sheep are the normal size for a Livestock Carrier. Let me tell you that during the last two decades of the twentieth century, the number of sheep carriers in the Livestock Carrier was small and the capacity was 130,000 sheep.
There were at least two large livestock carriers by the time of the twentieth century and which are found to be specialized in combined cargo of cattle and sheep. One Livestock Carrier had a capacity of about 7,000 cattle and 70,000 sheep. And another Livestock Carrier is carrying 14,000 cattle and 20,000 sheep. In the year 2007, this type of ship Deneb Prima was carrying cargo for 20,000 cattle and 2000 sheep.
The space allotted for animals on this type of ship is officially controlled according to their size and weight range. In addition, in Livestock Carrier, large and heavy animals are allotted proportionately more space per head.
Main Subtypes Of Livestock Carriers
1. Most animal pens are installed on open decks in this type of open vessel. In principle, those pen areas of Livestock Carrier provide continuous natural ventilation of areas and avoid reliance on mechanical ventilation systems. Ventilation is considered to be a major factor in the transportation of live animals on the Livestock Carrier. In a Livestock Carrier, when the animal's pen becomes poorly ventilated, the depletion of oxygen and the formation of toxic gases develop very rapidly. Circumstances in the Livestock Carrier vary according to the surrounding conditions but in some tropical conditions the failure of ventilation systems results in many animals being put to death in two or three hours.
Natural ventilation alone is a clear limiting factor following the wind conditions in the ocean. And when the air moves at the same speed as the Livestock Carrier, the natural air flow that ventilates the pens of many animals may be insufficient. Some types of complementary mechanical ventilation are also installed in a critical type of area with back-up devices suitable for emergencies on most open-air vessels.
2. In closed carriers of this type more or less all animal pens are located inside the ship's holdings and inner decks. The Livestock Carrier has the advantage of providing a more controlled environment in which all animals and their food and watering systems are sheltered from adverse weather.
Ventilation in this vessel is almost entirely dependent on mechanical systems and the specific construction rules here require specific ventilation standards for interior spaces that usually determine the minimum number of air changes per hour. The rules of ventilation also require back-up systems and auxiliary power systems that are considered separate from the main engine room. Adequate ventilation, lighting, water and food can be maintained for animals in the event of fire and machinery failure in engine locations on the Livestock Carrier.
Types Of Animals Transported
Different species are usually transported in Livestock Carrier but so far most of the breeds of sheep and cattle have been transported on Livestock Carrier. During the latter part of the 20th century, millions of sheep and tens of thousands of cattle were transported on these ships. Livestock Carriers include horses, lions, deer, goats and at least one occasional ostrich to transport other domesticated species. Many live fish are transported on small specialized Livestock Carrier for transportation.