Today we are going to talk about Gharial. Gharial is known as one of the three species of crocodile. The Gharial crocodile is found only in the Indian subcontinent. This crocodile is also known as gavial or fish-eating crocodile. Gharial is known to be the longest crocodile in the Gavialidae family and of all living crocodiles. This crocodile is a long-nosed crocodile. So let us gather a little more information about Gharial.
This crocodile was growing up to 7 meters. In the past history of our country there have been reports of deaths of giant Gharial crocodiles in the Gogra and Kosi rivers. This type of crocodile is one of the most endangered species in the world due to the hunting of skins, killing for medicine and loss of habitat. This crocodile is well suited for catching fish as Gharial has long, thin snout and 110 sharp and has intertwined teeth.
The Gharial crocodile is currently inhabited by rivers in the plains of the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Gharial is very well known as an aquatic crocodile. Gharial crocodiles only release water to build and build nests on moist sandbanks. Gharial is a mate in adulthood at the end of the cold season. This type of crocodile lays 20-95 eggs and they protect the nests and young before the onset of monsoon.
Gharial crocodile populations have declined sharply since the 1930s. And today the historical range of Gharial crocodiles is limited to only 2%. The best known paintings of this type of crocodile are about 4,000 years old. The Hindus consider the Gharial to be the vehicle of the Gaṅgā River. The locals living near the rivers attributed this type of crocodile to mystical and healing powers. And some body parts of Gharial crocodiles were used as ingredients in indigenous medicine.
Distribution and Habitat
Gharial crocodiles roam and live in all the major rivers of the Indian subcontinent such as the Indus, Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy rivers. Now the distribution is limited to only a few rivers in India where this type of crocodile lives. The Gharial species is on the verge of extinction due to loss of habitat, death and polluted rivers around here.
Today small populations of this type of crocodile are present in Girwa river, Son river, Ganga, Mahanadi River and Chambal River. The National Chambal Sanctuary has a large wild population of Gharial crocodiles. Eight young Gharial crocodiles were found near the confluence of the Yamuna River in autumn 2012. About 30 Gharial crocodiles were found in small lakes and tributaries of Brahmaputra River in Assam between 2004 and 2007.
This type of crocodile is olive colored. Gharial has dark brown cross bands and speckles. Gharial's back has turned almost black at the age of 20 but this crocodile's stomach is yellow-white. The neck of the Gharial has four transverse rows of two scales and continues at the back. The aviaries on the back of the Gharial are bones but they are soft and weak on the sides. The crests protrude from the front of the Gharial crocodile, to the outer edges of the legs and feet, and its fingers and toes are partially webbed.
The snout of Gharial crocodiles is very long and narrow and wide at the end. Gharial has 27 to 29 upper teeth and 25 or 26 lower teeth. The front teeth of this type of crocodile are the largest. This type of crocodile becomes relatively dense with age. This crocodile has a sting of 1,784–2,006 N. This type of crocodile is the only living crocodile.
The body length of the female species of Gharial is 2.6 m and it grows up to 4.5 m. The male species of Gharial matures at least 3 m in body length and grows to a length of 6 m. The average weight of adult males of this type of crocodile is about 160 kg. Adult males of this type of crocodile have larger skulls than females and have a basic length of 715 mm and a width of 287 mm.
Behavior and Ecology
Gharial crocodiles release water just to sit on the river bank. Being cold-blooded, Gharial seeks coolness during hot weather and tends to warm up when the surrounding temperature is cold. This type of crocodile basks every day during the cold season. This crocodile starts hitting the Basque early in the morning and returns to the river when it is hot. This type of crocodile shares a river habitat with Crocodylus palustris in parts of the range. Gharial crocodiles use grounds of similar structure.
These crocodiles are near the water on a shallow, sandy beach in the Basque Country. And Gharial crocodiles lay their eggs in the sandy soil near the water. The Gharial crocodile is distinguished by stripes and rocks. And Gharial for basking and structure building the Gharial moves a little farther from the coast. This type of crocodile depends on the prey of snakes, turtles, birds, mammals and dead animals.
Conservation of Gharial
One project involves the conservation, supervision, reincarnation and captivity of Gharial crocodiles. The National Chambal Sanctuary, known as the National Chambal Sanctuary along the Chambal River in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, is the longest protected area for such crocodiles and endangered Ganges dolphins and red-crowned roof turtles.
The Madras Crocodile Bank Trust is a place to save the Gharial crocodile species. Gharial crocodiles in Nepal are fully protected under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Here the eggs of Gharial crocodiles are reared for two to three years.
The male light of Gharial matures at the age of 15-18 years and when it reaches the body length of the crocodile about 4 meters and once the house develops. The Gharial crocodile is apparently used as a voice for indoor or other sexual behaviors. The breeding females of Gharial crocodiles found in the Chambal River during the dry season regularly run 80–120 km. Gharial crocodiles lay 20-95 eggs in late March and early April.
This type of young crocodile lands in July before the onset of monsoon after 71 to 93 days of incubation. The sex of Gharial crocodiles, like reptiles, is largely determined by temperature. This type of crocodile stays in the structure until the monsoon floods and returns after the monsoon.