Countries Around The Caspian Sea & Facts

Today we are going to talk about Countries on the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is known as the world's largest body of water. The Caspian is classified as the largest lake or entire sea in the world. As the endorheic Basin, the Caspian Sea lies between Europe and Asia. So let's gather a little more information about Countries on the Caspian Sea.

The Caspian Sea has a salinity of about 1.2% and is found in about a third of the average seawater. The Caspian Sea is bordered by Russia from mid-north to mid-west, Kazakhstan from mid-north to mid-east, Azerbaijan to the south-west, Iran to the south and adjacent corners, and Turkmenistan with the southern parts of its eastern coast.

The caspian is found extending from north to south for about 1,200 kilometers. The average width of the caspian is 320 km. The total coverage of the Caspian Sea is 386,400 km2 and the surface is about 27 m below sea level. The Caspian's main freshwater stream enters Europe's longest river, the Volga, and its shallow northern end as its main stream.

The two deep deep basins on the caspian form its central and southern zones. The caspian zone leads to horizontal differences in temperature, salinity and ecology. The caspian reaches 1,023 m above sea level in the south and is the second lowest natural stress on Earth after Lake Baikal.

The caspian is considered to be home to many species. The caspian is best known for its caviar and oil industries. Pollution from the oil industry and, to a lesser extent, demos on rivers flowing into the Caspian has damaged its ecology.


The caspian is very rich in natural gas and which offers high rates. The caspian is believed to be a remnant of the ancient Para Tethys Sea and is part of the Tethys Ocean that existed 50 million to 60 million years ago. Much of this ocean evaporated during hot and dry periods, eventually forming the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Aral Sea. The caspian is estimated to be about 300 million years old.

Gradually salt water left the Tethys Sea and the Caspian Sea got its share of salinity. European explorers began sailing the Caspian Sea in the 16th century to investigate. The first offshore oil well was drilled at The Caspian in 1820. The Caspian’s other occupations include coastal salt mining, fishing and tourism.

Hydrology of The Caspian

The caspian has similar characteristics for both the sea and the lakes. The ecosystem of the oceans is a closed basin. The caspian has its own sea level history that is independent of the eustatic level of the world's oceans. The level of The Caspian Sea has dropped and risen many times over the centuries.

Rainfall causes variations in the amount of pressure within the Atlantic, which in turn is much higher than the cycle of North Atlantic oscillations, which is why the level in the Caspian is related to the atmospheric conditions of the North Atlantic and thousands of kilometers to the northwest.

Studies by many researchers estimate that the surface of the caspian is falling by more than six centimeters each year due to increased evaporation due to rising temperatures caused by climate change.


The caspian is the largest body of water in the world. The caspian accounts for 40 to 44% of the world's total lacustrine water. The Northern Caspian Sea contains only the Caspian shelf and is found to be very shallow. The Northern Caspian Sea accounts for less than 1% of the total body of water with an average depth of only 5-6 meters. The average depth of the Central Caspian is 190 meters. The Southern Caspian Sea is the deepest and has an ocean depth of over 1,000 meters. The northern part of the caspian usually freezes in winter and cold winters also see snow falling to its south.

More than 130 rivers flow into the Caspian Sea. The Caspian has many small islands located mainly in the north and these islands have a collective land area of ​​about 2,000 km2. The atmosphere of the southwest The Caspian is generally warmer due to the combination of high mountains and mountain ranges with uneven altitude. Some of the islands of the Caspian Sea have human settlements.

Environmental Degradation

The low reach of the caspian is highly developed with numerous uncontrolled releases of chemical and biological pollutants. The UN Environment Program warns that the Caspian Sea suffers from heavy pollution due to oil extraction and refining; offshore oil fields, radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and huge amounts of sewage and industrial waste, mainly from the Volga River. The intensity of fossil fuel extraction and transport activity in the oceans of this type also poses a threat to the environment. Existing and planned oil and gas pipelines under the Caspian Sea pose a potential threat to the environment.


Mr. Kukral said the caspian has become very well known for its biodiversity. According to the World Wildlife Fund, The Caspian Sea is considered an area of ​​importance due to its unique properties. The shores of many areas of the Caspian Sea are covered by shallow saline pools in which birds, crustaceans, small fish and insects thrive.

The birds on the caspian are present throughout the year and many of their species use the sea as a migratory shelter. About 2000 species and subspecies of animals live around the caspian and about 400 of them are endemic to The caspian. The caspian is home to animals such as the horse field tortoise, the Caspian gull, the Caspian tern, the spur- thighed tortoise, the Caspian white fish, the Caspian salmon and the Caspian seal.

The most famous and economically valuable animal in the Caspian Sea is the beluga sturgeon. The world's largest freshwater fish, the beluga sturgeon, is known for its eggs. Most beluga caviar in the world comes from the sea.

The Volga River Delta in the North Caspian Sea has a wide range of endemic and rare aquatic plants, according to the World Wildlife Fund. The vegetation in the Turkmenistan part of the coast is considered poor. However, The Caspian has some special salt-resistant plants, including shrubs and sagebrush.

Basin countries

Non-border Countries:

  • Georgia
  • Uzbekistan
  • Armenia
  • Turkey

Border Countries :

  • Russia
  • Iran
  • Turkmenistan
  • Azerbaijan
  • Kazakhstan


The caspian currently faces many environmental hazards. The changing environment has an impact on the area, economy, flora and fauna and overall ecosystem of The Caspian. The intensive development of oil and gas in the Caspian has led to air, water and land pollution problems, depletion of natural resources, damage to wildlife and plant life, ecosystem disruption, desertification and loss of biodiversity and landscape diversity.

Oil spills, litter and chemicals from coastal industrial and municipal sites, sewage and waste from rivers are the main causes of land and water pollution in the Caspian Sea. Atmospheric damage has caused serious health problems to residents of five countries around the oceans who drink pollutants through water, air, food and swimming. According to the Pars Times, The Caspian region sees four times the rate of blood diseases, tuberculosis and intestinal infections than other parts of Kazakhstan.

Facts and figures of The Caspian Sea

  • Average depth : 692 feet
  • Altitude : 72 feet below sea level
  • Length : 640 miles
  • Surface area : 143,244 square miles
  • Maximum width : 270 miles
  • Minimum width : 124 miles
  • Maximum depth : 3,363 feet
  • Water volume : 18,761 cubic miles
  • Coastline area : 4,237 miles
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