Today we are going to talk about Pangea. Pangea was known as a supercontinent. Pangea existed during early Mesozoic eras and the late Paleozoic. Pangea was assembled from units of previous continents about 335 million years ago and broke up about 175 million years ago. So let's gather a little more information about Pangea.
The continent was centered on the equator, in contrast to the present-day distribution of the Earth and its continents. And the super ocean around Pangea was surrounded by Panthalassa. This type of continent exists and is the first to be reconstructed by geologists.
1. One Phase
This type of continent has existed as a super continent since its assembly about 160 million years ago to 335 million years ago. The Pangea Sea of the early Carboniferous was dominated by bryozoans, mad corals, brachiopods, sharks, and the first bony fish. And there was also life on land from insects and lycopene forests inhabited by other arthropods and the first tetrapods.
The continent of Pangea then collapsed and in the time of Middle Jurassic the oceans were filled with molluscs, sharks, ichthyosaurs and bone fish bound by rays and the first rays and the land was dominated by forests of life cycling ads and then the first Appeared. The evolution of life in this interval of time reflects the conditions created by this continent.
The trend of early drying was most pronounced in the western Pangea continent and was known as the center for the evolution and geographical proliferation of amniotes. The assembly of this continent disrupted the intercontinental conversion zone and created a heavy monsoon atmosphere and then Pangea reduced the amount of coal to its lowest level in the last 300 million years.
2. Two Phase
The second phase of the continent's separation took place about 150 million years ago. At that point in the Pangea the world was Laurasia - North America, Europe and Asia and Gondwana and which were India, Africa, South America, Antarctica and Australia. The stage of this type of Pangea mainly worried Gondwana and began to separate all the continents from their former Landmass body.
Pangea is considered to be the primary cause of the first major shift to the north of Australia, Africa and India and similarly forms the South Indian Ocean. And then the land later known as the Atlantic and what is now Africa and South America - the South Atlantic Ocean was broken up by Gondwana and over time that mass of land flowed west.
The formation of the Indian Ocean also took place at the same time as the Pangea separated from Madagascar and India Antarctica and was pushed further north. Pangea is still connected to the island of Madagascar. Pangea started a rift in the land mass and eventually broke up India and Madagascar.
India was moved to Eurasia away from its native African anchor by Pangea. India collided with Eurasia about 500 million years ago. And shows the crust of the earth is along the lines of Pangea's plate shaking and debris. Due to the small fractures of the Pangea in the east, New Zealand, and New Caledonia began to be properly separated from Australia.
3. Three Phase
The third phase of the break of this continent is that which in general sense leads to the map of the earth. The tectonic plates of Pangea are in constant motion but the results of this phase are now the same as the position of the continents due to its slight change.
In this type of Pangea phase, the population of the remaining ‘multi-continent’ land broke down and the situation shifted. The continent is separated from Laurasia in the north and divided into Laurentia and Eurasia, which resulted in another sea, known as the Norwegian. Australia was also completely separated from Antarctica during the third phase of the Pangea. And then it is expected to eventually collide with East Asia.
In this third phase, South America pulled north from Antarctica and turned upwards. Minor changes bring Japan and its oceans, forming the Alps in this phase of the Pangea, expanding the Gulf of California and including Fisher and Rift to the east. The stagnation and rifts tore apart the continent's only one-year continent into its various parts, which over time turned and rejoined.
Climate Change After Pangaea
Large amounts of carbon dioxide were emitted from continental rifles with the collapse of this type of continent. The breakdown of Pangea produced high Mesozoic CO2 and which contributed to the very hot climate of the early Cretaceous. And then the opening of the Tethys Ocean also saw an increase in weather temperatures.
The very active Mediterranean belts associated with the rupture of the Pangea Continent have elevated sea levels in geological records. And the collapse of the Pangea caused flooding on most continents. And the expansion of temperate climatic zones with the rupture of this Pangea may contribute to the diversification of angiosperms.
Origin of The Pangaea
The name "Pangea'' of the continent is derived from the ancient Greek pan and Gaia. The idea that the continents of Pangea once formed a coherent landmass on Earth was first introduced by Alfred Wegener, the originator of the scientific theory of continental currents, in his 1912 publication The Origin of the Continental. Alfred Wegener elaborated on the hypothesis of Pangea in his 1915 book The Origin of Continental and Oceans
Proof Of A Single Landmass
There is a lot of big evidence to support Pangea. Scientists' deep understanding of plate tectonics has helped to mention the movements and patterns in the archipelago and the Earth's crust. Evidence of the formation of mountain ranges in the world, mythical valleys, plate boundaries and volcanic activity around fault lines have greatly contributed to the understanding of the tectonic plate motion and currents of scientists and Pangea.
Then there is also much evidence that all continents were at one time a mega continent of pangea. Pangea is found mainly in fossil records of both flora and fauna found all over the world. Different fossils of the same or similar animal species have been found in the continents separated from Pangea and which are now at a great distance. Like the outline of Pangea the land masses touch at one time and which allows for the free movement of species between continents in the present time.