What is a Wetland & Types Of Wetland

Today we are going to talk about what is a Wetland. Wetlands are considered a separate ecosystem and are flooded by water. Wetland operates oxygen-free processes on a permanent or seasonal basis. This type of ecosystem performs many functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, coastal stabilization, and support for plants and animals. So let’s collect a little bit about Wetland.

Wetlands are known to be the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems. Wetland serves a wide range of plant and animal life. Depending on the characteristics of any wetland is the land and water nearby. Wetland Ecological health and methods for rapid assessment of general wetland conditions have been developed in many regions in recent times.

This type of ecosystem occurs naturally on every continent. Wetland water occurs in either fresh water, debris or brackish water. Types of main wetlands include swamp, marsh, bog and fan. This ecosystem can be tidal or non-tidal. The big wetlands include the West Siberian Plain, the Amazon River Basin, the Pantanal in South America, and the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta.

In addition, the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment states that wetland systems are considered to be more prone to environmental degradation than other ecosystems on Earth. In addition, some wetlands are used for the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater as well as storm water. Many wetlands can also play a role in water-sensitive urban formation.

Definitions

Wetland is generally referred to as a transitional land between terrestrial and aquatic systems. And this type of ground water table is usually covered with shallow water on the surface. Wetlands differ from other water bodies or landforms in general depending on the water level and the types of plants living within them.

In addition, this type of ecosystem is classified as a water table and stays close to the ground surface for a long enough period of time to support aquatic plants each year. Wetland is a community composed of hydraulic clays and hydrophytes. Wetland also provides a transition between arid land and aquifers.

Climates

Wetland is found in different climates around the world. Wetland temperatures vary greatly depending on the location of the wetland. Wetland is located in the middle between the North or South Pole and the equator in many humid temperate regions of the world.

Normal temperatures in the tropical zone ecosystem can be 11 ° C. Wetlands in tropical areas are in very hot seasons for most of the year. Wetlands on the Arabian Peninsula can reach temperatures above 50 ° C. In addition, the temperature of this type of ecosystem in northeastern Siberia, which has a polar climate, can be as low as 50 C.

The amount of rainfall a wetland receives varies widely according to the area of ​​the ecosystem. This ecosystem in Wales, Scotland and Western Ireland typically receives about 1,500 mm per year. Wetlands can receive up to 10,000 mm of rainfall in many places in Southeast Asia.

Types Of Wetland

Wetland of each type is determined by its hydrology, water chemistry, soils and plant species. This type of ecosystem can be dominated by shrubs or vegetation. Wetlands can be fed by rain, wastewater or groundwater and have water chemistry ranging from highly acidic to alkaline. Below are some of the major ecosystem types in the Upper Midwest.

1. Swamps

This type of wetland is dominated by water-tolerant trees such as bald cypress and tupelo. Forested swamps are banned in southern parts of the state in Illinois. This type of wetland has red maple forest, hardwood forests with wide bottoms along the lazy rivers from the northeast to the southeast. This ecosystem is characterized by saturated soils during the growing season and standing water during certain times of the year.

This type of wetland plays an important role in flood protection and nutrient removal. Seeps Wetland the forests from the floods are particularly high in productivity and species diversity as this Wetland has a rich collection of alluvial soils from the floods.

  • Sub Types
  • Forested swamp
  • Shrub Swamps

Fens

This type of wetland is known as peat-forming wetlands. And Fens Wetland gets nutrients from sources other than rain. Fens are usually separated from the surrounding mineral water by drainage and groundwater movement from upside down sources and bogs because Fens Wetland is less acidic and has higher nutrient content.

Fens Wetland is considered to be able to support more diverse plant and animal communities. Fens in wetlands are often covered by grass, sedges, rush and wildflowers. Fens Wetland is a phenomenon formed mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Fens Wetland occurs in the northeastern United States, the Great Lakes region, the Rocky Mountains and many parts of Canada.

Marshes

Wetlands of this type are often defined as wetlands and are constantly flooded. Marshes Wetland is characterized by emerging soft-stemmed vegetation adapted to saturated soil conditions. There are a wide variety of marshes from the prairie pits to the Everglades to the inland seas and from freshwater to freshwater marshes.

All types of marshes get most of their water from surface water. And marshes are also fed too many swamps by groundwater. Marshes Wetland has plenty of nutrients and the pH is generally neutral. Marshes Wetland brings an abundance of plant and animal life.

Heavy flooding in floodwaters and nutrient depletion often lead to the destruction and degradation of Marshes Wetland. Such environmental problems prove to play an important role in Marshes wetland and wetlands.

  • Sub Types
  • Non-Tidal Marshes
  • Wet Meadows
  • Prairie Potholes
  • Vernal Pools
  • Playa Lakes
  • Tidal Marshes

Bogs

This type of wetland is known as one of the most distinctive wetlands in North America. Bogs Wetland is characterized by a covered floor covered with spongy peat deposits, acidic water and a thick carpet of sphagnum moss. This type of ecosystem gets most of their water from rainwater, groundwater or rain instead of rivers. And due to which this wetland is low in nutrients required for plant growth.

Bogs Wetland is a sphagnum moss that grows on a pond or lake and slowly fills the wetland. And in addition Bogs Wetland forms in dry soil and prevents water from leaving the surface. The unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of this type of wetland result in the presence of plant and animal communities and which show many special adaptations such as nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions and acidic water such as carnivorous plants.

This type of wetland in the United States is found mostly in the Glaciated Northeast and Great Lakes regions, but also in the southeast. There Bogs Wetland was used as a fuel and soil conditioner. Bogs Wetland has recently gained much recognition for its role in controlling the global climate by storing large amounts of carbon in peat deposits.

  • Sub Types
  • Northern Bogs
  • Pocosins

Ecology

The most important factor in building this ecosystem is flooding. Wetland determines the duration of flooding by groundwater and the long saturation of the soil, whether there is aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation in the resulting ecosystem. Other important factors in wetland include fertility, natural disruption, competition, vegetarianism, burial and salinity.

Conservation

This ecosystem has historically suffered from major flooding efforts for the development of real estate and for use as recreational ponds or hydropower products. Some of the most important agricultural areas in the world are beautiful wetlands that have been turned into farmland. Since the 1970s, many have focused more on saving wetlands for their natural work.

Hydrology

This type of ecosystem is hydrology associated with the spatial and temporal dissipation, flow, and physico-chemical characteristics of surface and groundwater in its reservoirs. Based on hydrology it can be classified as riverine, lacustrine and palustrine. Sources of hydrological currents in wetlands and wetlands are mainly rain, surface and water lands.

In addition hydrodynamics affects hydro-periods by controlling water balance and water storage. The landscape characteristics of this ecosystem control hydrology and hydrochemistry. The hydrochemistry inside many wetlands is determined by pH, salinity, conductivity, soil composition, nutrients, hardness and water sources. The water chemistry of this ecosystem varies across landscapes and climatic regions.

Valuation

This is one of the most important assessments of the value of this type of ecosystem as well as of the earth and mankind in general. Wetland is undertaken for sustainable development. Wetland assessment usually involves first mapping the wetlands of the region and then the ecosystem evaluates the functions and ecosystem services provided individually and collectively.

It evaluates information to prioritize and rank many individual wetland types for conservation, management, restoration, and development. In the long run Wetland needs to keep known wetland inventories and observe representative samples of wetlands to determine changes due to both natural and human factors.

Uses of wetlands

Wetland can support many values and benefits. The United Nations Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ramsar Convention give a full description of the ecosystem misuse in the following areas based on the importance and social significance of the biosphere.

  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • Cultural values
  • Pollination
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Shoreline stabilization and storm protection
  • Water storage
  • Wetland products
  • Water purification
  • Recreation and tourism
  • Groundwater replenishment
  • Reservoirs of biodiversity

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