Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Mumbai)

Today we are going to talk about Sanjay Gandhi National Park. This type of national park is considered to be an 87 km2 protected area in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Sanjay Gandhi National Park was established in 1996 with its headquarters at Borivali. Sanjay Gandhi National Park is known as one of the most visited parks in the world. So let us gather a little more information about Sanjay Gandhi National Park.

The rich flora and fauna of this type of national park attracts more than 2 million tourists every year. Many tourists also visit the 2400 year old Kanheri Caves located in Sanjay Gandhi National Park. Sanjay Gandhi National Park supports more than 8% of global biodiversity. Sanjay Gandhi National Park is known as one of the most visited national parks in Asia.

Ecology

Sanjay Gandhi National Park is home to a number of endangered species of flora and fauna. Sanjay Gandhi National Park has more than 1000 species of plants, 251 species of migratory, 5000 species of land and water birds, 5000 species of insects and 40 species of mammals. The National Park is also home to 38 species of reptiles, 9 species of amphibians, 150 species of butterflies and large fish.

Some of the common animals found in Sanjay Gandhi National Park include spotted deer, four-horned deer, muntjac, sambar deer, rhesus and bonnet macaque, Hanuman langur, porcupine, Indian rabbit, Indian flying fox and Asian palm civet.

Sanjay Gandhi National Park is home to many species of Kadamba, Teak, sheesham and Acacia varieties, ziziphus, karanj, Euphorbia, Forest Flame, Red Silk Cotton and various other types of flowers. Also a flowering plant called karvy which blooms once in eight years and which can be found in Sanjay Gandhi National Park.

Some of the birds seen in Sanjay Gandhi National Park include forest owls, racquet-tailed dragons, minivets, magpies, golden orioles, robins, hornbills, bulbuls, sunbirds, peacocks and woodpeckers. Apart from this, various species of migratory and endemic birds like paradise flycatchers and kingfishers, myna, swifts, gulls, drongos, egrets and herons have also been spotted in this National Park.

History

This type of national park area has a very rich history and dates back to the 4th century BC when the trade route between the two ancient ports of Kalyan and Sopara passed through the forests of this National Park. In addition, the Kanheri Caves in the middle of Sanjay Gandhi National Park were considered to be an important center of Buddhist learning and pilgrimage built by Buddhist monks between the 9th and 1st centuries BCE.

Tulsi and Vihar were built in two cities by the British in the forest area of ​​This National Park to supply water to the city of Mumbai. And to protect the catchment areas of those artificial lakes, Krishnagiri National Park was established in 1950 with an area of ​​only 20.26 sq. km.

And then in 1969, about 2,076 hectares of land under the previous Aarey Milk Scheme was handed over to the Forest Department. In 1976, a total of 68.27 sq. km of land was renamed as Borivali National Park and more land was added. And in 1996, This Park was renamed "Sanjay Gandhi National Park" in memory of the late Sanjay Gandhi, the youngest son of the former Prime Minister of India.

Geography

Sanjay Gandhi National Park is a mountain range between 30 m and 480 m high. Sanjay Gandhi National Park covers about 20% of Mumbai's metropolitan area. An estimated Sanjay Gandhi National Park is surrounded by a high human population of about 200 million people. The water from the lakes at Sanjay Gandhi National Park is used to provide a portion of the drinking water to the masses of Mumbai.

Sanjay Gandhi National Park has a small zoo and crocodile park and many recreational activities for the tourist such as lion and tiger safari, van queen narrow-gauge train revolve around many walking paths etc. During the winter season, thick fog can be seen in this National Park and the night temperature is less than 15 degrees Celsius. Due to the natural green cover of Sanjay Gandhi National Park and the presence of the lake and the elevation to some extent, the rainfall varies greatly from what one sees in the city.

Climate

Due to the hilly terrain, the presence of lakes and natural greenery, the temperature in this type of national park is lower than in the city. Temperatures in Sanjay Gandhi National Park vary between 18 ° to 20 ° C during the winter months from October to January. Due to the natural green cover of the area, Sanjay Gandhi National Park receives more rainfall during the wet rainy month of July till mid-October. It is estimated that Sanjay Gandhi National Park receives more than 3000 mm of rainfall annually.

Threats

Sanjay Gandhi National Park has faced many problems like national parks elsewhere in the world, including conflicts between natural and human interests. A road would have been cut off from Sanjay Gandhi National Park as proposed in the early 2000s, but animal activist Tarun Nayar went to court to stop the project.

There are also mushrooms around Sanjay Gandhi National Park in many slums. Corruption in local politicians and Mumbai's influential builder lobby is generally blamed for shrinking Sanjay Gandhi National Park. Due to this national park, the threat of leopards is still present in and around Thane district with recurrent attacks on patients as well as pets and humans.

Despite being declared a "national park", Sanjay Gandhi National Park is given the highest level of legal protection. Yet this type of national park still hosts about 43 villages within its territorial boundaries with a population of thousands of natives and expatriates at the present time.

A significant number of these people depend on the forest areas of this National Park for their livelihood. And which has caused the forest to suffer a lot of encroachment and is constantly under tremendous anthropogenic pressure. In addition, Sanjay Gandhi National Park has recorded several incidents of poaching and human-wildlife conflict.

Tourism

This type of national park is said to be one of the most visited national parks in Asia. According to many estimates, about 2 million visitors visit Sanjay Gandhi National Park annually. In addition to this, Sanjay Gandhi National Park is a narrow-gauge train that travels around the tourist zone to display the rich biodiversity of the forest.

In addition, Sanjay Gandhi National Park offers boating facilities for tourists such as two-person, pedal boats for a nominal fee. In addition, there are many small parks for tourists to visit, including flower gardens, sunrise / sunset views, and small waterfalls, resting places, occasional deer and a misty boating lake.

Nature trails and tracks are also popular for tourists at this place. Rock climbing enthusiasts always visit Sanjay Gandhi National Park as Sanjay Gandhi National Park has numerous rock faces and offers the best opportunity for rock climbing in the popular caves here.

Thousands of morning walkers can visit Sanjay Gandhi National Park every day to witness the breath of fresh air like the elderly, youth and children. Sanjay Gandhi National Park is also considered to be a residence for sports lovers.

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