Hornbill is a family bird and it is found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. It’s characterized by a long down curved bill which is frequently brightly colored. And sometimes have a casqued on the upper mandible. It have a two lobed kidney.Description
Hornbill length is 1 ft and weight is 4kg. it is males are always bigger than the females. The hornbills are heavy bill supported by powerful neck muscles by the fused vertebrae. The huge bill assists in fighting , preening , constructing the nest and catching prey. It is typically black, white, grey or brown and it is frequently offset by bright colors on the bill and patches of bare colored skin on the face or wattles. Many species exhibit sexual dichromatism the coloration of soft parts various by gender. It is possess binocular vision unlike most birds with type of vision and the bill intrudes on their visual field and own bill tip and aids in precision handling of food objects with their bills. It’s eyes are projected by large eyelashes which act as a sunshades. The helmeted hornbill is not hollow but it is filled with hornbill ivory and it is used as a battering ram in dramatic aerial jousts.
Distribution And Habitat
Hornbill include about 55 living species a number of cryptic species may yet be split as has been suggested for the red billed hornbill. The Indian subcontinent to the Philippines and the Solomon island. 24 species found in Africa and 13 birds are of more open woodland and savanna. Most species are found in dense forests. 9 species are found in India and adjoining countries. In the Sri Lanka grey hornbill is restricted to the island. The international union for conservation of nature in Indonesia has 13 hornbill species of 9 exist in sumatra.The rest exist in sumba , sulawesi and kalimantan.
Behavior And Ecology
Hornbill is travelling in Paris or small family groups. It is larger flocks sometimes from outside the breeding season. Hornbill’s main food is birds , fruits, insects and small animals. Many hornbills defend a fixed territory. It’s related to diet in fruits sources because are often patchily distributed and require long distance travel to find. So species is specialize in fruit are less territorial. Female hornbill lays up to six white eggs in holes or crevices in trees. Hornbills are do not adopt behavior but are conventional cavity nesters.
In 1815 Constantine Samuel Rafinesque. In 2 subfamilies 1st the Bucorvinaecontain the two ground hornbills in a single genus and 2ndthe Bucerotinae contain all other taxa. Hornbills is separated from the coraciiformes order of the own the subfamilies elevated to family level. The arrangements chosen is more a matter of personal taste than any well established taxonomic practice. An early African lineage the rest of Bucerotiformes evolved in Asia. First southeast Asian species the white crowned hornbill. The knobbed hornbill is more related to rhyticeros and leaving the rufous necked hornbill the only member of the genus aceros.
Status And Conservation
African species of hornbill is seriously threatened and many Asian hornbill id threatened by hunting and habitat loss as well as they tend to required primary forests. The plains pouched hornbill and rufous necked hornbill is found on the Asian mainland. In the Philippines the palawan hornbill os vulnerable and the mindoro and visayas hornbills are endangered. The rufous headed hornbill and the critically endangered hornbill and the sulu hornbill are restricted to the Philippines. The Ticao hornbill is subspecies of the visayan hornbill and it is probably already extinct. The other species is the helmeted hornbill. And it is threatened by uncontrolled hunting and the trade in hornbill ivory.
In Popular Culture
Hornbill name is Zazu of the characters in the 1994 film the lion king. It was used the official mascot of Malaysia’s political parties. Hornbill is the state animals sarawak Malaysia state located in Borneo. The hornbill is the bird in state of Kerala an Indian state.